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Wednesday, September 24, 2008


you should spent about 20 minutes on Questions 1-15 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
A spark, a flint:How fire leapt to life

The control of fire was the first and perhaps greatest of humanity's steps towards a life-enhancing technology.To early man, fire was a divine gift randomly delivered in the form of lighting, forest fire or burning lava. Unable to make flame for themselves, the earliest peoples probably stored fire by keeping slow burning logs alight or by carrying charchol in pots.

How and where man learnt how to produce flame at will is unknown. It was probably a secondary invention ,accidentally made during tool-making operations with wood or stone. Studies of primtive societies suggest that the earliest method of making fire was through friction.European peasants would insert a wooden drill in a round hole and rotate it briskly between their palms. This process could be speeded up by wrapping a cord around the drill and pulling on each end.

The Ancient Greeks used lenses or concave mirrors to concentrate the sun's rays and burning glasses were also used by Mexican Aztecs and Chiness. Percussion methods of fire lighting date back to Paleolithic times, when some Stone Age tool-makers discovered that chipping flints produced sparks. The technique became more efficient after the discovery of iron, about 5000 years ago. In Arctic North America, the Eskimos produced a slow-burning spark by striking quartz against iron pyrites, a compound that contains sulphur. The Chinese lit their fires by striking procelain with bamboo. In Europe, the main method of fire-lighting untill the mid 19th centuary.

Fire-lighting was revolutionised by the discovery of phosphorus, isolated in 1669 by German alchemist trying to transmute silver into gold. Impressed by the element's combustibility,several
17th centuary chemists used it to manufacture fire-lighting devices, but the results were dangerously inflammable. With phosphorus costing equivalent of several hundred pounds per ounce, the first matches were expensive.

The quest for a match really began after 1781 when a group of French chemists came up with the  Pboqbboric Candle or Ethereal Match, a saled glass tube containing tt-twist of paper tipped with phosphorus. When the tube was broken air rushed in, causing the phosphorus to self-combust. Au even more hazardous device, populut in America, was the Instantaneous Light Box - a bottle filled with sulphurlc acid into which splints muted with chemicals were dipped.

The first matches resembling those used today  were made in 1827 by john Walker, an English pharmacist who borrowed the formula from at rocket-rnaker called Congreve. Costing a shilling a box. Congrews were splints coiued with sulphur and upped with potassium chlorate. To light them, the user drew them quickly through folded glass paper.

Walker never patented his invention, and three years later it was copied by a Samuel jones, who marketed his product as Luctjerx. About the same time, a french chemistry studentcalled Charles Sauria produced the first ‘strike-'anywhere' match by substituting white phosphorus for the potassium chlorite In the Walker formula. However, since white phosphorus ls a deadly poison, from 1845 match maker exposed to its fumes succumbed to necrosis, a disease that eats away jaw·bones. lt wasn't until 1906 that the aubmncc was eventuallt banded.

That was62 years after a Swedish chemist called Pasch had discovered non-toxic red or amorphous phosphorus, a development exploited commercially by Pasch's compatriot J E Lundastrom's safety matches were safe because the red phosphorus was non-toxic; it was painted on to the striking surface instead of the match tip,which contained potassium chlorate with a relatively high ignition temerature of 182 degrees centrigrade.

America lagged behind Europe in match technology and safety standards. It was not untill 1900 that the Diamond Match Company  bought a French patent for safety matches - but the formulla did not work properly in the different climatic conditions prevailing in Americ and it was another 11 years before scientist finally adapted the French patent for the US.

The American however can claim several 'firsts' in match technology and marketing. In 1892 the Diamond Match company pioneered book matches. The innovation didn't catch until after 1896,when a brewary had the novel idea of advertising its product in match books. Today book matches are the mostly widely used types in the US,with 90 percent handed out free by hotels,restaurants and others.

Other American innovation include an anti afterglow solution to prevent the matches from smouldering after it has been blown out; and the waterproof match,which lights after eight hours in water.
Questions 1-8
complete the summary below. Choose your answer from word at the bottom of the pages and write then in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.

There are more words than spaces so you will not use them all. You may use any of the words more than once.

Primtive societies saw fire as a..........(example).....gift.  Answer heavenly.

The tried to .....(1)........burning logs or charcoal ...........(2).........that they could create fire themselves. It is suspected that the first man made flames were produced by .........(3).......
The very first fire-lighting methods invloved the creation of ............(4).........by , for example, rapidly .........(5).......a wooden stick in a round hole. The use of ........(6)......or persistent chipping was also widespread in Europe and among other peoples such as Chinese and ......(7)...... .European practice of this method continued until the 1850........(8) the discovery of phosphorus some years earlier.

                     mexicans   random  rotating  despite  sunlight  lacking  heavenly  
                     percusssion  chance  friction unaware    without  make  heating                      Eskimos  surprised  until  smoke

Questions 1-8
Look at the following notes that have made about the matches descrided in Reading passage 1. Decide which type of matches (A-H) corresponds with each description and write you answer in boxes 9-15 on you answer sheet.

There are more matches than description so you will not use them all. You  may use any match more than once.

could be lit after soaking in water.     Answer H

9. made using a less poisomous type of phosphorus
10. identical to previous type of match
11. caused a deadly illness
12. first to look like modern matches
13. first matches use for advertising
14. relied on an airtight glass container
15. made with the help of any army design

Types of Mtches

A    The Ethernal Match
B     The Instantaneous Lightbox
C     Congreves
D     Lucifers
E     The first strike-anywhere match
F     Lundstrom's safety match
G     Bokk matches
H     Waterproof matches
Answer key
1 preserve
2 unware
3 chance
4 friction
5 rotating
6 percussion
7 Eskimos
8 despite
9   F
10 D
11 E
12 C
13 G
14 A
15 C


Marking is carried out at the test centre by trained examiners
whose work is closely monitored. This ensures that test results
are available without any administrative delay.
Results are standardised and usually available within two weeks
of the test, and Test Report Forms are sent to the candidates
and to the sponsor(s)/receiving institution(s). Test centres are not
permitted to give results over the phone, or by fax or email.

Test Scores
IELTS provides a profile of a candidate’s ability to use English.
Candidates receive scores on a Band Scale from 1 to 9.
A score is reported for each test component. The individual test
scores are then averaged and rounded to produce an Overall
Band Score according to a confidential Band Score conversion
table. Overall Band Scores and individual test scores are
reported in whole and half bands.

IELTS Band Scores

Expert user 9

Has fully operational command of the language: appropriate, accurate and fluent with complete

Very good user 8

Has fully operational command of the language with only occasional unsystematic inaccuracies and inappropriacies. Misunderstandings may occur in unfamiliar situations. Handles complex detailed argumentation well.

Good user 7

Has operational command of the language, though with occasional inaccuracies, inappropriacies and misunderstandings in some situations. Generally handles complex language well and understands detailed reasoning.

Competent user 6

Has generally effective command of the language despite some inaccuracies, inappropriacies and
misunderstandings. Can use and understand fairly complex language, particularly in familiar situations.

Modest user 5

Has partial command of the language, coping with overall meaning in most situations, though is likely to make many mistakes. Should be able to handle basic communication in own field.

Limited user 4

Basic competence is limited to familiar situations. Has frequent problems in understanding and expression. Is not able to use complex language.

Extremely limited user 3

Conveys and understands only general meaning in very familiar situations. Frequent breakdowns in communication occur.

Intermittent user 2

No real communication is possible except for the most basic information using isolated words or short formulae in familiar situations and to meet immediate needs. Has great difficulty understanding spoken and written English.

Non user 1

Essentially has no ability to use the language beyond possibly a few isolated words.

Did not attempt the test 0

No assessable information provided.


Duration and format
The Speaking test takes between 11 and 14 minutes and
consists of an oral interview between the candidate and an
All Speaking tests are recorded.
Task types
There are three parts to the test and each part fulfils a specific
function in terms of interaction pattern, task input and candidate

In Part 1 candidates answer general questions about
themselves, their homes/families, their jobs/studies, their
interests, and a range of familiar topic areas. This part lasts
between four and five minutes.

In Part 2 the candidate is given a verbal prompt on a card and is
asked to talk on a particular topic. The candidate has one minute
to prepare before speaking at length, for between one and two
minutes. The examiner then asks one or two rounding-off

In Part 3 the examiner and candidate engage in a discussion of
more abstract issues and concepts which are thematically linked
to the topic prompt in Part 2. The discussion lasts between four
and five minutes.

Research has shown that the speech functions which occur
regularly in a candidate’s output during the Speaking test are:
Other speech functions may emerge during the test, but they are
not forced by the test structure.

Marking and assessment
Speaking performances are assessed by certificated IELTS
examiners. All IELTS examiners hold relevant teaching
qualifications and are recruited as examiners by the test centres
and approved by British Council or IDP: IELTS Australia.
Detailed performance descriptors have been developed
which describe spoken performance at the nine IELTS bands.
Public versions of these descriptors are available on the IELTS

Fluency and Coherence

This criterion refers to the ability to talk with normal levels of
continuity, rate and effort and to link ideas and language
together to form coherent, connected speech.
The key indicators of fluency are speech rate and speech
The key indicators of coherence are logical sequencing of
sentences, clear marking of stages in a discussion, narration
or argument, and the use of cohesive devices (e.g. connectors,
pronouns and conjunctions) within and between sentences.

Lexical Resource

This criterion refers to the range of vocabulary the candidate
can use and the precision with which meanings and attitudes
can be expressed.
The key indicators are the variety of words used, the adequacy
and appropriacy of the words used and the ability to
circumlocute (get round a vocabulary gap by using other words)
with or without noticeable hesitation.

Grammatical Range and Accuracy

This criterion refers to the range and the accurate and
appropriate use of the candidate’s grammatical resource.
The key indicators of grammatical range are the length and
complexity of the spoken sentences, the appropriate use of
subordinate clauses, and the range of sentence structures,
especially to move elements around for information focus.
The key indicators of grammatical accuracy are the number
of grammatical errors in a given amount of speech and the
communicative effect of error.


This criterion refers to the ability to produce comprehensible
speech to fulfil the Speaking test requirements.
The key indicators will be the amount of strain caused to the
listener, the amount of the speech which is unintelligible and
the noticeability of L1 influence.


Duration and format
The Writing test takes 60 minutes. There are two tasks to
complete. It is suggested that about 20 minutes is spent on
Task 1 which requires candidates to write at least 150 words.
Task 2 requires at least 250 words and should take about 40
Candidates may write on the question paper but this cannot be
taken from the examination room and will not be seen by the
Answers must be given on the answer sheet and must be written
in full. Notes or bullet points in whole or in part are not
acceptable as answers.
Academic Writing
In Task 1 candidates are asked to describe some information
(graph/table/chart/diagram), and to present the description in
their own words. Depending on the type of input and the task
suggested, candidates are assessed on their ability to:
• organise, present and possibly compare data
• describe the stages of a process or procedure
• describe an object or event or sequence of events
• explain how something works
In Task 2 candidates are presented with a point of view or
argument or problem. Candidates are assessed on their ability
• present the solution to a problem
• present and justify an opinion
• compare and contrast evidence, opinions and implications
• evaluate and challenge ideas, evidence or an argument
The issues raised are of general interest to, suitable for and
easily understood by candidates entering undergraduate or
postgraduate studies or seeking professional registration.

General Training Writing
In Task 1 candidates are asked to respond to a given problem
with a letter requesting information or explaining a situation.
Depending on the task suggested, candidates are assessed
on their ability to:
• engage in personal correspondence
• elicit and provide general factual information
• express needs, wants, likes and dislikes
• express opinions (views, complaints etc.)
In Task 2 candidates are presented with a point of view or
argument or problem.
Candidates are assessed on their ability to:
• provide general factual information
• outline a problem and present a solution
• present and possibly justify an opinion, assessment or
• present and possibly evaluate and challenge ideas, evidence
and argument
The topics are of general interest and it makes no difference
what subjects candidates study.

Marking and assessment
Each task is assessed independently. The assessment of Task 2
carries more weight in marking than Task 1.
Writing responses are assessed by certificated IELTS examiners.
All IELTS examiners hold relevant teaching qualifications and are
recruited as examiners by the test centres and approved by
British Council or IDP: IELTS Australia.
Detailed performance descriptors have been developed
which describe written performance at the nine IELTS bands.
Public versions of these descriptors are available on the IELTS
The descriptors apply to both the Academic and General
Training Modules and are based on the following criteria.

Task 1 responses are assessed on:
• Task Achievement
• Coherence and Cohesion
• Lexical Resource
• Grammatical Range and Accuracy

Task 2 responses are assessed on:
• Task Response
• Coherence and Cohesion
• Lexical Resource
• Grammatical Range and Accuracy

Task 1

Task Achievement

This criterion assesses how appropriately, accurately and
relevantly the response fulfils the requirements set out in the
task, using the minimum of 150 words.
Academic Writing Task 1 is a writing task which has a
defined input and a largely predictable output. It is basically an
information-transfer task which relates narrowly to the factual
content of an input diagram and not to speculated explanations
that lie outside the given data.

General Training Writing Task 1 is also a writing task with a
largely predictable output in that each task sets out the context
and purpose of the letter and the functions the candidate should
cover in order to achieve this purpose.

Coherence and Cohesion

This criterion is concerned with the overall clarity and fluency of
the message: how the response organises and links information,
ideas and language. Coherence refers to the linking of ideas
through logical sequencing. Cohesion refers to the varied and
appropriate use of cohesive devices (for example, logical
connectors, pronouns and conjunctions) to assist in making the
conceptual and referential relationships between and within
sentences clear.

Lexical Resource

This criterion refers to the range of vocabulary the candidate has
used and the accuracy and appropriacy of that use in terms of
the specific task.
Grammatical Range and Accuracy
This criterion refers to the range and accurate use of the
candidate’s grammatical resource as manifested in the
candidate’s writing at the sentence level.

Task 2

Task Response

In both Academic and General Training Modules Task 2 requires
the candidates to formulate and develop a position in relation to
a given prompt in the form of a question or statement. Ideas
should be supported by evidence, and examples may be drawn
from the candidates’ own experience. Responses must be at
least 250 words in length.
Scripts under the required minimum word limit will be penalised.
Scores are reported in whole and half bands.